Monthly Archives: October 2017

History of Coffee: Part IV – Commercialisation of Coffee

History of Coffee: Part IV – Commercialisation of Coffee

For many connoisseurs, the period from the mid-19th Century to the late 20th Century is the ‘Dark Age’ of coffee. During this era, coffee lost its Middle-Eastern mystical charm and became commercialised and, quite frankly, ordinary.

When coffee was first introduced into Britain during the 17th Century, it was a drink enjoyed by every social class. While the rich would enjoy coffee almost ceremonially in their social clubs, the poor saw coffee as an essential nutrient, a hot drink to replace a hot meal, or hunger suppressant. It was only a matter of time, with the advancement of technology, that large companies would form to take advantage of the coffee commodity.

Traditionally coffee was roasted in the home or in the coffeehouse. A practice imported from the Middle-East was to simply stir-fry green beans in an iron pan over a fire till brown. Some coffeehouses used a more sophisticated method of a cylindrical unit hung above a fire with a handle to rotate the beans inside. Both these methods were only capable of roasting small batches of coffee, a couple of kilos or several pounds at most, which ensured that the coffee was always fresh.

However, with the onset of the industrial revolution and mechanisation, coffee roasting technology soon improved. Commercial coffee roasters were being invented which were capable of roasting much larger batches of coffee. It was now possible for the few to meet the coffee needs of the masses.

It was in the United States where coffee initially started to be commercialised. In 1865, John Arbuckle marketed the first commercially available packages of ground, roasted coffee. His brand, ‘Ariosa’, was sold over a far larger area then any other coffee roaster. Instead of being confined to a small area close to his roasting factory, Arbuckle was able to establish his coffee as a regional brand. Others soon followed suit and, by World War I, there were a number of regional roasters including companies such as Folgers, Hill Brothers, and Maxwell House. These companies offered customers consistent quality and convenient packaging for use in the home, but at a price: freshness. It could be several weeks, or even months, before the end product would reach the customer.

One approach to prolonging the freshness of roasted coffee was to glaze it with a glutinous or gelatinous matter. After the coffee beans had been roasted, a glaze would be poured over them, which would form a hard, protective barrier around the bean. Once such glaze patented by John Arbuckle in 1868, consisted of using: a quart of water, one ounce of Irish moss, half an ounce of isinglass, half an ounce of gelatine, one ounce of white sugar, and twenty-four eggs, per hundred pounds of coffee. Arbuckle experimented with many different glazes over the years, eventually settling on a sugar based glaze. In fact, Arbuckle became such a prolific user of sugar that he entered into the sugar business rather then give a profit to others for the huge quantities he required.

So why were customers willing to buy this coffee? Once ground, coffee quickly loses its flavour and therefore should be consumed as soon as possible (at the very latest within 48 hours). But this was the age of the brand, where consistency ruled king over quality. Local roasters would often produce excellent coffee, but they could also produce foul coffee, occasionally containing a number of adulterations. Customers wanted to trust what they were buying. They wanted their coffee to taste exactly the same, time and time again.

The first coffee brand to come to Britain was Kenco. In 1923, a co-operative of Kenyan Coffee farmers set up a coffee shop in Sloan Square (London), called the Kenyan Coffee Company, to distribute high quality coffee beans around Britain. Their shop proved very popular and their brand of coffee (renamed Kenco in 1962) soon spread throughout the UK.

Worse was to come to the brew known as coffee. As regional roasters grew into national roasters and then into international roasters, their pursuit of profit intensified. Traditionally coffee came from the ‘arabica’ variety of coffee bush. But in the 1850s, the French and Portuguese began to cultivate a different variety of coffee bush, known as ‘robusta’, on the west coast of Africa between Gabon and Angola. Robusta beans were (and still are) cheaper then arabica beans as they are easier to grow and have an inferior flavour. Coffee roasters looking to minimise their production costs started blending robusta beans with arabica beans in increasing quantities. They also used shorter roast times, to reduce weight loss stopping the coffee from fully developing its complex flavour.

However the lowest point for coffee comes with the introduction of instant coffee – a drink bearing little resemblance in taste to actual coffee. Although the first commercially produced instant coffee, called ‘Red E Coffee’, invented by George Constant Washington, an English chemist living in Guatemala, was marketed in 1909, it is Nestlé who are generally attributed with the invention of instant coffee. In 1930, Nestlé were approached by the Instituto do Café (Brazilian Coffee Institute) to help find a solution to their coffee surpluses. They believed that a new coffee product that was soluble in hot water, yet retained its flavour, would help stimulate World coffee sales. After seven years of research and frequent tasting, scientist Max Mortgenthaler finally achieved the desired results and, on 1st April 1938, Nescafé was launched, first in Switzerland and then later in Britain.

Some claim that it was the introduction of commercial television in 1956 that acted as a catalyst to the success of instant coffee in Britain. The commercial breaks were too short a time in which to brew a cup of tea, but time enough for an instant coffee. There is probably some truth to this claim as, by the 1960s, the majority of the tea industry started producing tea bags, an invention by Thomas Sullivan over half a century earlier (1904). Tea bags were seen as more convenient, simpler and quicker to use then traditional loose leaf tea and so could compete against instant coffee.

The coffee industry soon realised the association between commercial breaks and coffee drinking and started investing heavily in television advertising. Probably the most famous series of coffee advertisements were made for Nescafé Gold Blend. First aired in 1987, these advertisements focused on the sexual chemistry between a couple, played by Anthony Head and Sharon Maughan, acted out in a mini soap opera. The advertisements gripped the whole nation, featuring as frequently as Eastenders or Coronation Street as topics of conversation. This original series of advertisements ran for ten years, increasing sales of Gold Blend by 40% in the first five years (there were two further, less successful, sets of advertisements with different actors). Such was the profile of these advertisements, that they even featured as a news article on the ‘News at Ten’.

With the coffee industry focused on price rather then quality, it was little wonder that coffee sales became stagnant. Coffee drinking was now more about a caffeine fix rather then about savouring the taste, to be drunk in a break from work, rather then to be enjoyed over conversation or while reading the newspaper. Unsurprisingly the younger generations born in the 70s and 80s turned their back on bitter coffee, preferring sugary soft drinks such as Coca Cola and Pepsi for their caffeine kicks.

How To Recognize The Best Flavored Coffee

How To Recognize The Best Flavored Coffee

Flavored coffee is becoming more and more popular every day, in spite of negative reactions of the classic amateurs of coffee. In this article we cover:

– What flavored coffee is

– Is it just fashion or a new market and taste habit?

– What are the key factors that influence the quality

– Tips to recognize if we are in front of a ‘best flavored coffee’ or not.


In its simplest definition, flavored coffee is coffee with additional flavors added to the beans to give a specific taste, different than the classic organic taste offered by the coffee ‘alone’. Flavored coffee is made by adding flavored oils to the beans after they have been roasted and before they have been ground.


You may like it or not, but flavored coffee is today synonymous with gourmet coffee.
Flavoring coffee is not just a ‘new fashion’, and it is a very old habit as well. Flavored coffees have been used for centuries: Arabians began flavoring their coffees with cardamom hundreds of years ago; Africans experimented with citrus flavours; and South Americans enjoyed a hint of cinnamon in their cups.

Flavored coffee as we know it today began its development in the 60’s, with the spread of flavored tea from Europe. But it was with the specialty coffee boom of the 1990s that the overall interest in exotic flavours increased so remarkably.

Flavored coffee is a controversial topic among roasters and retailers. Real coffee connoisseur do not like it at all. But business is business, and despite a sometimes less-than-enthusiastic reception, flavored coffees are continuing to penetrate deeper into the market, as a result of exposure from large coffee shops, restaurants, and retailers of all kinds.

Today we can choose from a wide array of flavored coffees, with attractive names like ‘Amaretto’, ‘French Vanilla’, ‘Hazelnut’, ‘Chocolate Swiss’, etc.
Flavored coffee has therefore become a very trendy drink, so popular that according to some estimates one out of four Americans (25%) drinks a flavoured coffee at least twice a month!


Three main factors influence the quality of the best flavoured coffee:

– the selection of coffee beans

– the quality of flavors

– the process used.

Coffee beans: the type of beans used to make flavored coffee greatly impacts the taste of the finished product. Arabica beans are most frequently used for creating the best flavored coffee, due to their low levels of acidity and bitterness.

Flavors: the coffee roaster must choose between 100% natural flavours, artificial or ‘Nature Identical’ flavorings. Although the flavor name on packages may be the same (‘French Vanilla’), the product inside is of course very different.

The Process involves the appropriate amount of flavoring to be used, the chosen roast level, and how and when the flavours are applied. A more in depth view about how the best flavoured coffee is produced will be covered in another article, ‘How Best Flavored Coffees Are Produced’.


To help you make the most of coffee flavorings, here are some final tips to help you buy only the best flavored coffee beans.

Be sure you are buying from a reputable coffee roaster, to ensure your beans and flavorings are of a high quality. Firstly, verify that coffee beans are high-quality. Secondly, checks if flavor is made with 100% natural ingredients.

Some roasters may be adding flavor to low-quality beans thinking that their low-quality will be disguised by the flavoring. About 75 percent of taste is experienced through the nose, so the aroma makes for much of the flavored coffee experience, but best flavored coffee should not overdo it: the flavor should complement your coffee, rather than overwhelm it. The ideal flavor should mask some of the harsh notes of the coffee yet not interfere with its aromatic characteristics.

The degree of roasting determines the depth of flavour: the darker the roast, the heavier the flavor. If flavoring is added to beans which have too mild a roast, the coffee lacks significant flavor characteristics, and a flat-tasting beverage results. If the roast is too dark, the added flavor is covered by the taste of the beans. For example, a Vanilla flavor can be lost on a French roast, because the robustness of the bean may overwhelm the sweet creamy tones of the flavor.

Finally, flavored coffee should be stored as closely as possible to room temperature.


Many black coffee drinkers dislike flavored coffees, because they cannot fully taste the ‘native’ coffee flavor. While according to estimators, flavoring coffee is just making coffee even more appealing, by adding complimentary flavors.

Many coffee aficionados turn up their nose at the thought of adding flavorings to their beloved black beverage. On the other way, the taste habits of those who like flavored coffee are not much different than the ones who say ‘no, thanks’ to flavored, but then drink their coffee with milk or sugar (or both…).

As a matter of fact, whether you are a connoisseur of black or a lover of flavored, best flavored coffee is here to stay.

For two simple reasons. Consumers like it. And coffee business professionals like it as well, since they have seen the opportunity to create new profitable market niches, with higher margins than the traditional coffee.

Basic Tips When Creating and Executing a Fitness Guide

Basic Tips When Creating and Executing a Fitness Guide

We live in a world where getting fit is becoming more and more desirable. There are gym advertisements every which way you look and advertisements for work out videos and weight loss books in every magazine you pick up. However, despite the popularity of working out, it will not happen overnight. Instead of subscribing to a fad workout or diet, you should develop a fitness guide that will keep you fit and healthy for a lifetime rather than for a few weeks. Part of any fitness guide is consistency and diversity. The following are some tips to help you develop and stick with a fitness guide.

Start Slow

If you are new to working out, then you need to start slow. This is not just because your endurance will be lower than other folks, but it is because if you do too much too soon, you risk seriously injuring yourself. Thus, do not expect to run a marathon in the first months of using your fitness guide. Instead, you want to build up your strength and endurance. Try new activities and monitor the affects on your body. You should try to do small repetitions of different exercises and work your way up when it comes to swimming laps or running.

Make Long- and Short-Term Goals

Next, when developing your fitness guide, it is important to really make goals that are both long- and short-term. Having goals will help you stay motivated. This is why it is so important to have short-term goals. The more goals you reach, the more likely it is that you will feel inspired to keep at your fitness guide and to change the way you live your life. Long-term goals are great too because you will be reminded of these when you reach your short-term goals.

Similarly, when you reach a goal, you should celebrate. This does not mean going out for a milkshake or eating a tub of ice cream in one sitting. Instead, do something that helps you stay with your fitness guide. Buy some new gym clothes, book a trip to an exotic location, buy books to help you understand your body, and treat yourself to a massage. This way, you can stay motivated and will have things that help your overall health.

Learn Proper Form

When it comes to a fitness guide, quality and not quantity matters: you need to do the exercises right or they will not be effective. Thus, instead of racing your way through crunches, make every single one count. Watch videos and talk to experts so that you learn how to do exercises properly. This is not only so that your exercises are effective but also so that you protect yourself from harm. If you are not lifting weights correctly, you risk severely hurting yourself. If you are hurt, you will not only be in pain but will have to curb much of your fitness guide.

Similarly, always stretch before any workout. This will make your fitness guide that much successful. This way, you can be sure that your muscles are ready for what’s to come, and you can avoid injury.

Create a Well-Rounded Guide

Lastly, when developing and executing a fitness guide, you need to make sure that you tackle all areas of your body. You want to do more than run. Instead, make your fitness guide as diverse and all-inclusive as possible. Include weight lifting of the arms and legs, work on your abdominal area with crunches and similar exercises, and get your heart rate up with swimming or running. Yoga is a great way to stay fit and to keep you limber and flexible. This way, you can be sure you are working your whole body and improving your overall health.

Learn Molecular Gastronomy, Ronald Want to Raise Coffee Indonesia

Learn Molecular Gastronomy, Ronald Want to Raise Coffee Indonesia

INDONESIA known as a coffee-producing country. Indonesia also has a world-famous coffee. Why Indonesia known users of low quality coffee?

“Coffee in Indonesia using only copies of the lowest quality. Taken caffeine and coffee just the aroma alone to make instant coffee,” said Ronald Prasanto, during a visit to the editorial Okezone in highend Building, Jalan Kebon Sirih, Jakarta, recently.

Men who cultivate coffee in the field of molecular gastronomy is added, custom Indonesian who consume instant coffee is very unfortunate. In fact, the best coffee of Indonesia, such as Arabica, Robusta, and even civet coffee is exported to foreign countries.

With the techniques of molecular gastronomy, Ronald wanted to raise Indonesia’s coffee with a style that he has. In particular, to introduce to the world, if in Indonesia there are techniques of molecular gastronomy and can be applied to the original culinary Indonesia, particularly coffee.

For that, now Ronald with his fellow coffee lovers often meet and share information about coffee. He regretted that even if the school of hospitality and tourism in Indonesia only a few include curriculum about coffee.

“My sister is a school of hospitality school can be a lesson in coffee just two pieces, but I myself need to spend a couple of books,” he said.

In fact, in his experience, a hotel manager alone can not necessarily define specifications with cappucino coffee latte.

Moderate Exercises to Fitness!

Moderate Exercises to Fitness!

Have you ever felt tired and stressed out from work and by the time you get home you see your three children running towards you asking you to play basketball with them? You refused and promised them that you will after you take you rest.
Instead of disappointing your children, why not say, “yes” after all? You will be surprised by the amount of energy you will have after that 30-minute activity.

Did you know that by exercising at a moderate pace for only 30 minutes, you would feel a lot better, mentally? It has been proven that this improves the appetite and sharpens your style in problem solving. Not only that. You will also feel that it is easier to sleep at night if you do moderate exercises even for only 30 minutes every day.

What are the benefits of regular exercise? It promotes self-discipline and has a positive impact how you perceive life. Exercise helps in lifting your spirits and getting you out of any depression. For first timers, it can be done for 15 minutes for 2 to 3 days a week. You can increase the time you spend once your body gets tuned up for it.

DON’T you ever force your body! If you get hurt, then stop. You can take a break from exercising for a few days and then you can start again but you need to start from day 1.

Here are some moderate exercises you can do and enjoy:

1. Do the Walking. Make use of your surroundings. You can walk your dog, with your partner or child. Encourage your family to do the walking exercise daily and you will find yourself burning calories while enjoying the surroundings and getting enough sunlight that is also good for your body.

2. Discover the wonders of Yoga. Yoga is one effective exercise that energizes not only your body but also your soul. You may want to learn even the basic yoga positions that are not too complicated but proven effective. A five-minute yoga exercise can perk you up and recharge your body with the energy you lost for the whole day. You relax and at the same time you stretch!

3. Engage yourself into sports. Play basketball, football, baseball, tennis or badminton. Many doctors have recommended sports as an effective way to stay fit and healthy. Sports can also be done in moderation. Do not take it seriously. Shooting basketball with a friend is one moderate exercise that is also considered a sport.

4. Join exercise programs at work. If you still do not have exercises programs at work, then why not start it? You can talk to your boss about it and start with your colleagues. You do not only lose calories but it is also one good way to bond with them. This can be done 30 minutes, 3 times a week.

5. Exercise while doing household chores. Gardening, raking leaves, lawn mowing, doing the laundry, vacuuming and car washing are effective moderate exercises at home. Make use of these chores to sweat and burn calories. Instead of using machines and gadgets to perform these chores, why not do it with your hands and lose some fats?

Making exercises as part of your daily routines will surprise you of how much calories you will lose. Doing these moderate exercises of the same amount every day can burn 150 calories up to 1,000 calories a day!

5 Unique Ways to preserve food

5 Unique Ways to preserve food

Most hated it when food was coveted proved to be stale even before it got eaten. Is not there a way to make food more long-standing so it can be enjoyed?

There. Some people found a way to preserve food freshness and make more long-standing. This of course also makes age consumption becoming longer. There are several ways that make sense, some are not. And some ways this is a unique way some people used to preserve food.


It feels terrible to imagine burying food then one day he unloaded from ‘grave’ and eat it. However, this method is still used today and is practiced in Korea know.

Is a way of preserving foods passed down by ancestors Kimchi Korea in order to stay fresh longer and age consumption. Initially, the land provided to bury kimchi salted or frozen, making it warm and dark place.

Then, kimchi jars put into dirt that protects from dust, light and oxygen can alter food. Left for several months, kimchipun eventually be consumed and stored in the fridge or cupboard to be enjoyed not just a day.


Remember how to manufacture salted fish? Yes, that’s right. By drying in the sun. Reportedly, meat drying in the sun after being given some of the material will make it dry naturally and automatically preserved. This food can then be consumed for some time due to decay very long walk.

Usually the food is processed in this way is bananas for sale, and meat or fish.

Using a technique Lye

Itself is a kind of alkaline lye whose function is similar to that used soap to dry clean or cleaner. When consumed immediately Lye is very toxic and dangerous, but Lye can be used to preserve food.

When combined with fat, it will react by starting the process of saponification. These reactions can usually change the texture, aroma and taste of the food, but will age much longer.

Not everyone should and can use Lye. And only a few foods that can be processed by Lye as changes they experienced.


Confit method is a method to cut her off oxygen so slow decay that occurs in food. Usually the food will be cooled and sealed in a container.


Aspic is a method of preserving food with a texture similar chemicals similar to jelly. When applied to food, it will wrap around and be absorbed by the food and protect food from oxidation. Food will remain durable for longer.

Today, there are many ways a more modern food preservation. Even so, some food preservation methods above are still used.

Is there a way of preserving foods typical of the territory?